Seaport and capital of Sind on an arm of the Arabian Sea just NW of the Indus River mouth, approximately 92 mi SW of Hyderabad. Settled very early, in the 18th century it was a coastal fortress and trading center for Hindu merchants. In 1843 the British captured it and made it the seat of the Sind government. By the late 19th century it was a leading Indian port. The capital of Pakistan was located here from independence in 1947 until it was moved to Rawalpindi in 1959. It has a museum with a fine archaeological collection and the tomb of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan. The port was bombed and shelled in the 1971 India-Pakistan War. In the 1990s the city was riven with sectarian violence and the economy suffered. In the 21st century, however, Karachi has seen something of a rebirth with a rebounding economy and an explosion in population.